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The most basic requirement for any theoretical system

The requirement of consistency plays a special rôle among the various requirements which a theoretical system, or an axiomatic system, must satisfy. It can be regarded as the first of the requirements to be satisfied by every theoretical system, be it empirical or non-empirical.

In order to show the fundamental importance of this requirement it is not enough to mention the obvious fact that a self-contradictory system must be rejected because it is ‘false’. We frequently work with statements which, although actually false, nevertheless yield results which are adequate for certain purposes. (An example is Nernst’s approximation for the equilibrium equation of gases.) But the importance of the requirement of consistency will be appreciated if one realizes that a self-contradictory system is uninformative. It is so because any conclusion we please can be derived from it. Thus no statement is singled out, either as incompatible or as derivable, since all are derivable. A consistent system, on the other hand, divides the set of all possible statements into two: those which it contradicts and those with which it is com­patible. (Among the latter are the conclusions which can be derived from it.) This is why consistency is the most general requirement for a system, whether empirical or non-empirical, if it is to be of any use at all. [72]

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